Prescribed Word Order and the LMS

The usefulness of Learning Management Systems are lost on me. I know why institutions use them, at least I think I do – to fence-off content, to organize their own institutional processes, to guard the privacy of students, and perhaps to make it easier for non-tech teachers to use tech. They are used as LearnER Management Systems, endpoints in themselves rather than the starting points that would better serve learners, and because of this I feel that the bad outweighs the good that they provide. What they don’t do is much more glaring to me, especially because what they don’t do seems largely to go either unnoticed or ignored.

With all the chatter about Change in Education (This video, for example) and preparing students for the practical skills of the futuristic future, you would think that more people would be concerned that the use of LMSs falls short in preparing students for communication in digital spaces. As a separated process, they climatize students, and educators, for one single system of communication that’s likely not going to be the one single system that they use once they leave enrollment status, in the unlikely case that any graduate of any school would use only one single digital space. LMSs train participants for one single type of digital literacy, while delivering content. What LMSs don’t do is prepare students, and educators, to create their own learning environments and to seek out contexts that best suit them.

As an example, I’m learning a new (to me) LMS at work, because this is the LMS that the institution has chosen, because institutions have to choose an LMS. I ask “Can we do this?” and support answers me “Unfortunately, no. The LMS wasn’t designed with that feature.” Fair enough, we all have to work within restrictions of technology, except that the particular thing I want to do can be done very easily outside the walls of the LMS. This thing that I want to include in my course design is similar to a skill like setting up a blog – a skill which, in my opinion, is the exact type of thing that advocates of the “Everything is Changing and we have to keep up or we’re failing our students” tagline should be worried about. Instead, working within and thus learning an LMS is considered a foregone substitute for skills like learning how to establish an online presence, learning how to manage information abundance, learning how to discern credible information.

The more I think about it, the more I hope that LMSs are just a unique side effect of the transitional era the world of education is currently undergoing – a result of a large population of adult practitioners that have not grown up with current technology, and thus need a highly structured, psychological classroom to guide them through digital content delivery.

Digital Literacies involve new and unfamiliar environments for many people that have to use them, and for many people they lack a familiar context. LMSs provide this context by taking geographically based structure and imposing it in a digital environment. A few centuries ago, people studying English (a young language at the time) would impose the structure of Latin on to English. This promoted the idea that languages fit some sort of ideal structure or set of standards, where reality is that Latin and English are two different sets of technologies, with different affordances and obligations. With LMSs, many institutions are making a similar mistake – imposing the structure of one medium onto another.

“Clearly, ‘natural’ is very much a matter of geography.” – Guy Deutscher on the idea of a “natural” word order for language. His point is that the Word Order of any given sentence depends on where you are and what language you speak. It depends on geography, as he says, or context.

Learning in digital environments separates geography from context. Yet, the way LMSs are used seems to impose a context into the learning process – they prescribe word order in the grammar of digital communication, so to speak. It’s not a fluid context, it’s not a context that allows for learner control. It’s not a context that originates in the learner. It’s a context because many people need a context given to them…which would be fine, if the context were to ween itself out of the picture, thus creating less reliance on that context. But, LMSs don’t do this, they pack gravitational pull, they command and teach a particular perspective. Everything’s not Changing, apparently, everything’s just shifting context.

Choosing Consolidations and Detachments

From time-to-time I log into my daughter’s facebook account, with her at my side, and we cruise through some of the features as I help her use it to communicate with the few people that have friended her. When we moved across the globe last year, I thought it was a good opportunity for her to use a site like facebook to keep in touch with people who have been a major part of our daily life, but would now be too far away. I also thought it would be a good opportunity to teach her about things like facebook, and more importantly, digital communication.

Here’s an excerpt from our last facebook session:

Me: What do you want to say to everyone?

Her: I dunno, just “how are you?”

Me: ok, well, you tell me what to say and I’ll type it as you tell me. go.

Her: How are you? Write me back if you want.

Me: Good. Now I’ll type this in here, hit enter, then all of your friends can read it….er…I mean “facebook friends”….uh…

Her: …

Me: You see, on facebook they use the word “friend” but it doesn’t actually mean friend, well, it’s kind of a friend but it’s just someone who can see your…well, some might be friends, but some might just be people you’ve met…or people me and mommy know. It’s…the word “friend” can mean many things…

…and I probably babbled on like this for a few more minutes, trying to explain a definition of “friend” that is different from what she already knows – a definition of the word that brings a wider range of trust that what she is used to….dangerous to her, because she might assume that the term “friend” carries with it a certain level of trust, rather than the other way around.

One thing that jumped out at me from this exchange is the changing definition of the word “friend”, or even better, the expanding meaning of relationships that exist in the world. What was once “friend” now needs to be qualified maybe as “close friend” or “information feed friend”. Curse you Facebook for hijacking the word – couldn’t you have used something better suited, like “follower”.

Upon deeper reflection, something else jumped out at me in this exchange with my lovely daughter. She instinctively wanted to include the statement to “Write me back if you want” in her message – a message not necessary, since the way facebook works carries with it this message in itself.

I once had a friend, new to facebook, who would sign his status updates and wall writings, unaware that his profile made this signature unnecessary. It’s the same sort of thing with my daughter, except she’s only 6…apparently growing up with this technology, a digital native, unlike my real-life-friend using facebook who was around the same age as myself.

Do we distinguish between print natives and nomads? Yes we do, but the distinction comes when someone somehow has reached adulthood without learning how to read or write. Because print literacy is so embedded in many of our cultures, to mature without a strong sense of it seems unnatural.

And, in one sense, this distinction is unfortunate – it shows the bias of print language and the privilege that we place on it: if you don’t have print literacy encoded into you, then there’s something wrong with you…you are defected. If you come from an oral society into our own western one, it’s going to be difficult.

Children aren’t born with print literacy, they learn it. And for centuries, they have learned it at such a young age that the bias of language and especially printed language has been very difficult to understand in our selves. It helps communicating, for sure, but embedding print literacy at so young an age also hinders other types of non-linear communication…

…anyway, I don’t mean to argue against print literacy here, that’s not my point – there are enough ways to continue to teach children all types of literacy, or an open mindset on literacies, at the young age that we do. This is my point, that there seems to be a push for digital literacies to be the new bias that we embed into our culture – that we need to rush to “prepare children for their future, not the one we grew up in”. That instead of realizing our biases (which our western society has actually done a lot of over the past century) we are now ready to just trade old biases for new ones.

It’s a liberation of communication tools our society in undergoing in recent times, not a shift. Hopefully.

I love the fact that my daughter wanted to include “Write back if you want” in her social media message. I don’t like how the edtech world seems pointed to a future where we have digital illiterates who ‘have something wrong with them’. Life is a continuous process of consolidation and detachment…and the greatest separation feat of all is when someone manages to gradually free oneself from the grip of unconscious culture.

That ability to control our consolidations and detachments, my blog-post-reading-friends, is the more essential skill that we need to embed into our children. The skills of choice.

*The consolidation and detachment line is adapted from: Hall, E. T. (1989). Beyond Culture. New York: Anchor Books.

Openness is not a Synonym for Goodness

A recent exchange left me disheartened at where the practice of educational technology might be leading us. I don’t get disheartened all the time, but spirits do seem to evacuate me when I experience a wonderful affordance of digital communication used in a dogmatic way – like chasing a tail, trading the dogma of traditional instructional design for the dogma of contemporary instructional design gets us nowhere. The recent experience that I feel a need to get off my chest has to do with openness.

Openness is great. The word can relate to many things, and in the case that prompted me to write this, it was about open communication – also a great thing. Nowadays when educators communicate online we have the ability for that conversation to be distributed, archived, and accessible for others to read, learn from, and join in, even long after the initial exchange. Open communication can create nuggets of knowledge that communities can build on.

Some people are new to a more open communication and, although those who advocate for all openness all the time might not realize it, not everyone wants to gravitate to open communication all the time. It’s not a matter of experience, it is presumptuous thinking that a certain amount of experience with online communication will naturally lead to this mode of communication as a default – it’s a matter of looking at situation. For any given situation, I can think of numerous reason why communicating in the open might be beneficial, and I can think of numerous reasons why communicating in private might be beneficial. The danger comes from not looking at situation…if you’re not practicing Education from Situation, you’re doing it wrong. This is true regardless of your experience, your klout, the number of followers you have, who you hang with, and when you joined the game.

When a leader in the ed-tech realm doesn’t realize this, this is, and was the disheartening part for me. An influential practitioner who tries to offer up their experience as evidence of how things should be, is disheartening. (And I’ll keep using this word because it fits perfectly here, and typing it out kinda fills that void.) A spokesperson infatuated with technology disheartens me.

And that’s what this is, an infatuation with technology. Some examples of tech infatuation are easy to spot – the teenager on the train with six cellphones, an iPad, and a set of headphones plugged into who knows where is infatuated – and other examples of infatuation are more slight. The person who lets technology draw the line for things like ethics and best practice, this person is also infatuated with technology although it is more difficult to see.

Openness is not goodness.
Openness is not badness.
Openness is a great and important option to have, as is privacy.

It’s tough sometimes to talk to leaders in any field, they’ve gotten where they are by doing what they do…which usually includes heaps and heaps of useful contributions to a field. So, I’m writing this for the the non-leader, the follower, I suppose, someone who is confronting ed tech concepts in recent days. In language learning, there are a lot of educators out there newly embracing technology, and I strongly urge these educators to keep it balanced. Look at situation to select your options.

Casual, Informal Written English

The final lecture is a recap, with some long-term predictions for English from McWhorter. The predictions are cool, and I won’t relate them here, but leave them for him to explain on the recording – which I highly recommend. This is the second time I’ve listened to them, and they are well worth the time. Anyway, I’ll combine my thoughts on the second last lecture with the last one here, as I don’t have all that much to say.

Texting, and all other forms of digital communication, is the development of a casual, informal style of written English. It’s not the disintegration of language any more than casual conversations and friendly chat were. I think most people recognize this, apart from the message board complainers and Andy Rooney who seem to think language reflects some sort of unchanging standard.

So, explains McWhorter, there are the four types of language: written and spoken versions of formal and casual. I like this explanation, as it appears more as a set of language style tools that a culture has, rather than any sort of progression from good to bad or something. Not unlike what I’ve written about for communication technology.

Will casual written language affect formal and how we speak? Surely, some…but people tend to keep formal and informal speaking language separate – so likely casual written language likely won’t create any major shift in the other formal or spoken uses of English. Perhaps, just a centring of balance will occur.

The final lecture is a recap, as I mentioned. It talks about the future of English, and as I think I wrote a few posts ago, I wonder about English as a new Lingua franca, a new Indo-European. There are reasons to predict that it won’t be Chinese, but then again predicting the future hundreds of years off is nothing to go to Vegas about.

This is the final post in this series of notes on John McWhorter’s audio lecture series in Myths, Lies and Half-Truths of the English Language – Link to the first post in this series is here.

Poetry is a Celebration

Poetry is a celebration of language – just more so back in the day than it is now. As evidence of this, and poetry’s higher importance a century ago, McWhorter explains a Bugs Bunny cartoon from 1941 (apparently it’s called Rabbit Hunt, if you find it please link in the comments)  where the talking rabbit opens the skit by reciting a few lines of famous poetry, that viewers were surely to recognize. Perry the platypus probably wouldn’t do anything the like, even if he did talk.

Poetry used to be highly structured, even for a highly structured writing style. Over the years the structure of rules and shape lessened, but it also used to be that people could make a living at poetry. Nowadays, not as much. In pact, McWhorter points to a 1991 article that explains how the poetry industry is contrived by produces of poetry. Interesting stuff, but I wonder if it is the highly structure poetry at stake, rather than the a more free flowing style.

Because, despite the seemingly diminishing role of formal, highly prepared poetry, more varieties of this celebration of language seem to have a resurgence of late. Rap music is one example – and even within hip-hop culture, rappers will even measure their prowess on the control over language with a catalog of styles, an unconforming way to break the bounds of structure with a variety of structures.

My best guess is that what could be considered as poetry is heading for a golden age, at least online. That is, if you would consider things like words clouds and infographics as poetry. Maybe a better word is needed, but it’s certainly falls within the phrase a Celebration of Language.

We can only hope Perry’s first words are some dope lyrics.

Link to the first post in this series is here.

How We Write

How we write has changed over the past century, says Mcwhorter. Much of it comes down to expectations, and this makes sense to me since language is a social, negotiated process. There was a time when written language was expected to be thought-out, formal stuff. Examples of this are tired, beaten, rough-edged civil war soldiers and their highly structured letters to home.

Much of the lecture provides examples of written language from journalism and in comparing 6th grade reading between then and now. The difference is in the formality, the preparedness. Writing wasn’t how people spoke, speaking and writing were far different mediums because an informal style of writing hadn’t developed yet. Today, the two are much more comparable.

The old style writing culture, the highly prepared & formal style, comes out of an America that celebrated it’s literacy and use of language, it took pride in writing, it was a country new to being a global leader, and the affords of written communication allowed for high style. Writing is also physically easier nowadays.

Linguistic culture was like food culture – well prepared.

Today, there is much more allowance for style by the electronic word, so much so that writing has broken, developing in its wake a casual side to fill a need for speed in this busy world. Along the way, fast food restaurants and frozen dinners expanded food culture (for better or worse) as happened to linguistic culture. Written culture is still like food culture, I guess, except both have changed.

Today we have more nuance in writing, because we don’t throw away old styles when their importance diminishes – at least not in healthy cultures. Teaching (ESL or all) students style and structure is important, even if the role of high structure in writing has been diminished, as long as we impress on learners that these are starting points, not end points in the use of written language.

Link to the first post in this series is here.

Digital Rhetoric

I’m back to commuting, so I finally have a chance to listen to the final four lectures in the John McWhorter lecture series on Myths, Lies and Half-Truths about the English language. Lecture 20, on speech making, has been one of my favorites so far.

Decades ago, perhaps even a century or so, speeches came in quite different form – they were more like a written form of speaking. People were orators by profession, and spectators used to come to watch and listen to these speech makers as a form of entertainment, for the opportunity to hear someone use language in an elegant way. This was a time when “oration was one of the measures of a man”. Boisterous and heavily prepared, it is no coincidence that this style of speech making changed as audio and video transmission and recording technology became more prevalent in society. You can hear one example of this style in a campaign speech by Grover Cleveland from 1892. (McWhorter actually uses a clip from a US Senator named Charles Eaton, but I couldn’t find anything out there by him. If anyone has a link, please share.)

The type of rhetoric involved in this old style of prepared speechmaking does not translate well into recoding, amplification, and the casual, choppy style of today’s spoken word. Rhetoric shifted from spoken word to written word. However, this isn’t the rhetoric of negative connotation – it’s rhetoric that, in my mind, compares to literacy; to having the tools and device to command a medium. In the same way that the word rhetoric developed a bad name, so did this extravagant style of speechmaking from decades ago that is now considered caricature. This s the rhetoric of the ancient Greeks, and the rhetoric that connotes style and persuasion, without calling into question motives (a separate, albeit important matter).

I believe rhetoric closely compares with the concept of digital literacies in the variety of contexts and scope of its application. As electronic media shifted rhetoric from speech to writing, so now it comes back to the milieu of digital communication in the form of design. We encounter many different styles of mediums these days, for those who choose to be connected, and all of the dents and aromas that each particular form of communication brings with it. Knowing what is attached to our messages based on the form that they take, the shape of the channel, is a skill to be gained.

Link to the first post in this series is here.